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Mammalian Model for the Amplification of Cancer Stem Cells and Particularly, Prostate Cancer Stem Cells
University of York United Kingdom flag United Kingdom
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A non-human mammalian model and a process to produce a non-human mammalian model for the analysis of cancer, in particular for the analysis of cancer stem cells, and the use of the model in the identification and validation of therapeutic agents useful in
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The concept of a cancer stem cell within a more differentiated tumour mass, as an aberrant form of normal differentiation, is now gaining acceptance over the current stochastic model of cancer in which all tumour cells are equivalent both in growth and tumour-initiating capacity [Hamburger AW, Salmon SE: Primary bioassay of human tumour stem cells. Science 1977, 197: 461463; Pardal R, Clarke MF, Morrison SJ: Applying the principles of stem cell biology to cancer; Nat. Rev. Cancer 2003, 3: 895902.] For example, in leukaemia, the ability to initiate new tumour growth resides in a rare phenotypically distinct subset of tumour cells [Bonnet D, Dick J.E. Human acute myeloid leukemia is organized as a hierarchy that originates from a primitive hematopoietic cell. Nat. Med. 1997, 3: 730737] which is defined by the expression of CD34+CD38 surface antigens and have been termed leukemic stem cells (LSC).

Similar tumour-initiating cells have also been found in 'solid' cancers such as breast [AIHajj M, Wicha MS, BenitoHernandez A, Morrison SJ, Clarke MF: Prospective identification of tumorigenic breast cancer cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003, 100: 39833988], brain [Singh SK, Hawkins C, Clarke ID, Squire JA, Bayani J, Hide T, Henkelman RM, Cusimano MD, Dirks PB: Identification of human brain tumour initiating cells. Nature 2004, 432: 396401 ], lung [Kim CF, Jackson EL, Woolfenden AE, Lawrence S, Babar I., Vogel S, Crowley D, Bronson RT, Jacks T: Identification of bronchioalveolar stem cells in normal lung and lung cancer. Ce// 2005, 121 : 823-835] colon [O'Brien CA, Pollett A, Gallinger S, Dick JE: A human colon cancer cell capable of initiating tumour growth in immunodeficient mice. Nature 2007, 445: 1061 10; RicciVitiani L, Lombardi DG, Pilozzi E, Biffoni M, Todaro M, Peschle C, De Maria R: Identification and expansion of human colon cancer initiating cells. Nature 2007, 445: 1 1 1 1 15]; and gastric cancers [Houghton J, Stoicov C, Nomura S, Rogers AB, Carlson J, Li H, Cai X, Fox JG, Goldenring JR, Wang TC: Gastric cancer originating from bone marrow derived cells. Science 2004, 306: 15681571 ].

A method for isolation of prostate cancer stem cells directly from lymph node and prostate glands from a series of patient samples has been developed (see licensing opportunity entitled
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collaborative research and/or licence deal
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Last Updated Oct 2014
Technology Type RESEARCH
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