Background of Technology
People are increasingly interested in safety of the supplied blood. It was recently reported that some blood tested positive for hepatitis or AIDS was used for blood transfusions. Therefore, it is important to confirm that the donated blood is free from infectious diseases. For this, currently ELISA is the main method used for the hospitals and blood bank. However, ELISA technology can yield false positive or negative results under certain conditions. For example, in immune-compromised persons data obtained with the ELISA must be confirmed with complicated secondary tests, such as the LIBA or PCR-based protocols. Therefore, automated diagnosis system that it is quick, inexpensive and high sensitive, is urgently needed.
The development of protein chip or microarray technology has provided a highly sensitive, high throughput method for disease diagnosis by facilitating detection in small amounts of patient samples of antibodies to antigens from infectious viruses or bacteria. However, the current major challenge for the advancement of protein microarray technology is the need for optimized microarray materials that maintain the native conformation of the embedded antigen or antibody. In addition, to compete with more standard protocols (e.g., ELISA), the support materials for a protein microarray-based assay must be easy to handle and store and suitable for rapid and inexpensive production in large quantities; furthermore, the assay must yield high-quality, reproducible results.
The immobilization of proteins within sol-gel derived materials is an intriguing possibility for use with protein microarrays, because these materials do not require affinity-captured agents or tagged recombinant proteins, thus enabling the size entrapment of a wide variety of proteins in their native states. Thus, the detection limit of this technology was 1000 times more sensitive than that of other method.
We will develop the protein chip for blood bank screening with femto- gram (fg/ml) level of affinity and diagnose infectious disease including HIV, HCV, HBV, Malaria, H.pylori, Syphilis in one well at one time. Our technology should help promote the welfare of the people by increasing the safety level of blood bank.