Mechanism of Action/s (MOA)
Symptoms of joint-related diseases include inflammation, swelling, pain, and malfunction of joint due to cartilage and bone degeneration. Many studies have reported on the factors that induce inflammation and bone degeneration. AIF inhibits expression and secretion of these arthritis inducing factors, thus is effective in preventing pain, inflammation, and cartilage/bone degeneration.
AIF is a powder extracted from Panax Notoginseng, Rehmanniae Radix Preparata and Eleutherococcus senticosus.
In vitro bioassay data
Inhibition of inflammation & pain inducing factors : The influence of AIF on the secretion of inflammation inducing factors (cytokine) such as TNF-α, iNo, and IL-1 was evaluated. As the concentration of AIF increases, secretion of each factor was decreased, and secretion of Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) which is known as pain inducing factor was inhibited as well.
In vivo testing (Laboratory, Animal, and Human Clinical Studies)
Inhibition of Arthritis Index increase : AIF was administered to collagen induced arthritis mice for 21 days, and the changes of Arthritis Index were evaluated in this double-blinded trial. AIF treated group showed the suppressive effect on Arthritis Index increase compared to control group.
Efficacy Test of Mixed Extracts of Panax notoginseng, Rehmanniae Radix and Acanthopanacis cortex for Treatments of Horses with Experimentally induced Osteoarthritis. College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University
Method : 12 male horses between 2-5 years were selected for clinical trial. Horses were randomly assigned to one of two groups: AIF and placebo group. 3g of AIF were administered to experimental group daily during 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, change of the joint was evaluated by macroscopic, radiographic and histopathological assessment.
Result : AIF treated group showed fast cartilage regeneration, inhibition of arthritic index (AI) increase, and lower TNF-α concentration compared to control group. Considering the results of the clinical trial, AIF inhibits the secretion of inflammation inducing factors and joint bone degeneration, thus AIF is proven to have a great efficacy to prevent and cure for horse osteoarthritis.
Source : “Effect of Mixed Extracts (AIF) on Experimentally Induced Osteoarthritis”.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics; 18(4), 426~432 (2010)
The present study aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of herb extracts, AIF, on Korean knee osteoarthritis patients for six weeks. Fifty seven patients with knee osteoarthritis, ranging from 43 to 73 years of age, who fulfilled the “American College of Rheumatology” (ACR) classification of idiopathic osteoarthritis of knee and radiographic criteria were randomly selected and enrolled for the study. After initial screening and resting period, two capsules each of AIF (Each capsule contains; 400 mg) and similar identical placebo were administered twice a day to both groups. Pain intensity at second, fourth, and sixth weeks of study as well as one week after discontinuation of drugs was assessed by using 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS). Changes in the Korean version of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (K-WOMAC) index score were compared at the initiation and completion of the study.
VAS assessed by patients were significantly reduced (at visit 2; 54.64±14.72, at visit 4, 37.32±16.58, p? 0.001) after AIF administration. Results showed an improvement in the physical function of K-WOMAC scale which was significantly higher (p=0.013) in AIF than placebo group, and decreases of total K-WOMAC score were also significantly higher (p=0.030) in AIF groups than placebo group.
No serious adverse effect was observed, and there was no difference in incidence of adverse effect between AIF and placebo groups. In this population of Korean patients with knee osteoarthritis, AIF was found to be safe, tolerable and effective for symptomatic improvement of pain and physical function.
Result : Considering the results of In vitro, in vivo tests and clinical trials, AIF inhibits the secretion of inflammation inducing factors and joint bone degeneration, thus AIF is scientifically proven to be effective in reducing and suppressing arthritis symptoms.
Total number of clinical studies completed– 1
Study design- 57 patients, 6 weeks, randomized, double-blinded and placebo-controlled
Dose and delivery form used in the study/ies - 800mg/day, capsules
Published. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 2009;13: 33-37
Recommended Delivery form/s– Capsules or tablets
Recommended dose/s (mg per day) – 800mg/day
Collaborating Organizations, professors or University Affiliations - Department of Internal Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, School of Medicine
Conclusions from the studies
AIF was shown to be effective at improving pain and knee function in osteoarthritis patients, as assessed by using the VAS and K-WOMAC scale, and was found to have an acceptable safety profile. Therefore, it may be an applicable candidate as supplementary drugs for symptomatic osteoarthritis patients. Long term evaluation using different doses of AIF with large numbers of participants is recommended to accurately and precisely determine the effects of this formulation on prevention and treatment of osteoarthritis.