1. Background of Technology
1) Development of anticancer immune cancer treatment based on dendritic cell technology
Even within rapidly advancing medical sciences, cancer is still a major cause of death across the globe with low post-treatment survival rates. Most of the deaths within cancer patients are caused by minor remaining cancer cells difficult to discover after 1st phase treatment, recurrence or metastasis of localized cancer, and 2nd phase dual cancer. Previous treatment methods for cancer include surgery, chemical treatments and radiation therapy, yet tumors located in anatomically tricky positions are difficult candidates for surgery. At the same time, chemical or radiation treatments come with many side effects and tolerance build ups. As a result, the development of new forms of treatment is in need. In other words, a new form of treatment which can treat minor remaining cancer cells or initial metastatic cancer alongside traditional treatment methods, such as surgery, radiation and chemical treatment is required.
Immune cell treatments utilizing dendritic cells cultivate and manipulate immune cells taken from the patient's body for re-administration. Such a treatment method induces powerful cancer immunity while not affecting normal cells. It is a viable and effective form of treatment which prevents cancer metastasis and recurrence by using utilizing memory immunity to attack and destroy only cancer cells. In addition, the treatment has none of the side effects found in chemical or radiation treatments because immune cells from the patient’s own body are used in the creation of treatment. As such, the treatment contains no toxicity and outstanding stability, characteristics which are expected to be a significant breakthrough in the cancer treatment market.
2. Description on Technology Applied
(A) Dendritic cell technology
As highly specialized immune cells, dendritic cells play a role of in-taking antigens and providing related information to cell surfaces as well as treating disease by stimulating and controlling the immune responses of T cells to cancer or infective viruses.
Though dendritic cells exist within the blood, its minute quantity and difficulties in differentiation have been obstacles in its use as treatments. However, related R&D has caught momentum with the development of methods which differentiate blood cells or stem cells from dendritic cells. The following methods can be used to acquire relatively larger quantities of dendritic cells.
? Separate CD34+ stem cells from bone marrow or cord blood and process via cytokine such as GM?CSF, IL?4, TNF?α, to differentiate into dendritic cells.
? Administer Flt?3 ligand to the patient and induce specialization of large quantities of dendritic cells
? Separate mononuclear cells from the blood and cultivate in a culture added with GM?CSF and IL?4 to differentiate dendritic cells
Among the described methods, the production of dendritic cells using mononuclear cells carries advantages of being relatively simple and possible to acquire large quantities of dendritic cells. As a result, this production method is currently being utilized in dendritic cell treatment research here at Creagene.
(B) Cancer treatment using dendritic cells
Cancer treatments developed by Creagene which utilize dendritic cell production technologies include kidney cancer treatment CreaVax-RCC Inj., prostate cancer treatment (CreaVax-PC Inj.), and liver cancer treatment CreaVax-Hcc Inj. Rheumatoid arthritis treatment CreaVax-RA Inj. also utilizes the immune regulatory functions of dendritic cells.