Provide all supporting literature and research studies, publications, protocols, and analytical assessment.
Please separate data into:
o Mechanism of Action/s (MOA)
The liver is an important organ and plays a major role in metabolism and has a number of functions in the body. OLICOS play a role in improving liver function through the stimulation of metabolisms in liver. There are three modes of action as below.
Detoxification effect on liver damage through suppression of chemicals, toxins, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) since these harmful substances trigger the down-regulation of energy metabolisms in the liver, increasing ROS and energy consumption.
2) Cholesterol-lowering effect through the suppression of lipid synthesis in liver
The gene expression of PPAR-gamma, which plays a critical role in hepatic lipid metabolism, was suppressed by OLISOS in the liver.
3) Chemopreventive effect on the oxidative stress.
Excessive cellular requirement for ATP for energy needs usually results in incomplete reduction of oxygen and results in oxidative stress which generates ROS-related chronic diseases such as obesity, CVD, cancer, arthritis and diabetes. OLICOS has the potential to function as stimulator of biosynthetic metabolisms by stimulating enzymes related to anabolic pathway and also, enhancing host antioxidant enzyme response through a stimulation of the antioxidant enzyme response through SOD, peroxidase and catalase that can remove free radicals enzymatically.
o Chemistry/Characterization data
- Deacetylaed Chtin
- Water soluble
- Molecular weight ; 400~2000 dalton. (Mixture of 2~10 glucosamine units)
- Produced by natural product, crab.
- Bioconversion using natural enzymes
o In vitro bioassay data
- LDL cholesterol-lowering effect of OLICOS
(The Korean Nutrition Society, 36(9):908~917, 2003)
o In vivo testing (Laboratory, Animal, and Human Clinical Studies)
1) The suppression of PPAR-gamma by OLICOS in liver.
In rats that were given high calorie diet with COS (Fig 5. C), the expression of PPAR-gamma are similar to that of rats treated with normal diet lone (Fig 5. A). However, in rats treated with high calorie diet alone shows over-expression of PPAR-gamma (Fig 5. B) compared to control group.
2) Improvement of lipid metabolism in liver by OLICOS
OLICOS properly reduced the fat content in the body through suppression of the lipid synthesis-linked factors such as PPAR-gamma, FAS, and HMG-CoA.
3) Chemopreventive effect of OLICOS on inflammation factors in liver
Increasing liver damage the inflammation factors such as Plasma GOT, GPT increased. The levels of these factors were decreased properly with OLICOS.
(2000 Spring Joint Meeting of the Korean Societies on Fisheries Science", PP290-291, National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Pusan, May 19, 2000)
4) Reducing effect of fat accumulation by OLICOS in liver
Generally excessive alcohol intake triggers the far-accumulation in liver. The fat-accumulation in liver was reduced by OLICOS.
(KOREAN J.FOOD SCI. TECHNOL. 30(3), 693~696, 1998)
A : 15 % alcohol with OLICOS: No fat-accumulation in liver
B : 15 % alcohol with saline: Fat-accumulation in liver
5) ?Chemopreventive effect of COS on liver damage from toxic chemicals
In rats that were given CCl4 with COS, however, these liver injuries are less severe than in rats treated with CCl4 alone (Fig. B). Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), which are glycoproteins on cell surface, are involved in cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions and related to the development of liver illnesses. The results of this study indicate that COS exerted hepatoprotective effect on CCl4-induced liver damages.
(Cheju Journa of Life Science, 2(2), 3~10, 1999)
o In vivo testing
o Clinically tested
§ Provide studies done by Company on the ingredient.
§ Total number of clinical studies completed?
§ Study design? (number of subjects, duration of the study/ies, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, case controlled, etc.)
§ Percent response rate?
§ Dose and delivery form used in the study/ies
o Published or not published, and in which journal/s?
- Effects of Chitooligosaccharides on Liver Function in the Mouse
KOREAN J. FOOD SCI. TECHNOL.Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 693-696 (1998)
- Effects of Chitosanoligosaccharide on Body Weight Gains, Blood
Chemistry and Liver Function in Rats
The Korean journal of Laboratory Animal Science Vol. 19, No.4, pp. 267-270(2003)
-Antioxidative Effects of Water-Soluble Chitinous Compounds on Oxidation of Low Density Lipoprotein in Macrophages
The Korean Nutritional Sciences 39 (9) :908-917, 2003
-Effects of Chitooligosaccharides on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Liver Injury in Rats
Cheju Journal of Life Science, 2(2), 3-10, 1999
-Effects of Chitosanoligosaccharide on Growth of Olive Flounder, Paralichthys
2000 Spring Joint Meeting of the Korean Societies on Fisheries Science", PP290-291
National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Pusan May 19, 2000
-In Vitro Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of ChitosanOligosaccharides
J. Appl. Biol. Chem. 52(2), 84-87 (2009)
o Recommended Delivery form/s? ; Capsule
o Recommended dose/s? (mg per day) ; 350~700mg per day
o Collaborating Organizations, professors or University Affiliations
- Jeju National Univ. (Se-Jae Kim, Young-Hwan Ko, Professor)
- Hannam Univ. (Hae-Dong Chang, Young-In Kwon, Professor)
- Univ. Massachusette (Young-Cheul Kim, Professor)
Conclusions from the studies