This Artificial Blood Conduit (ABC) innovation is a medical device to treat heart disease. It functions as a transatrial aorto-coronary sinus which is used in the treatment of diffuse coronary atherosclerosis patients. The design in based on: (i) venture concept (overall design) (ii) venture throat concept – VETCO NARROWER SUB-SECTION) (iii) slanted top design (inlet) (iv) pressure drop (80-15 mmHg) with laminar flow (v) ABC Putra linear equation is created.
From the analysis of coronary sinus conduit, it has been found that a narrow tube needs to be incorporated into the conduit produced. This is to induce a venture effect to reduce the pressure drop of blood within a specific throat length. As conclusion, a model of 3mm inlet and throat diameter 1.13 mm showed satisfactory result for pressure reduction from 80mmHg to 15mmHg. This model also has a lower peak velocity at the inlet zone of the throat section which is more preferable in terms of Reynolds number.
The sizing of ABC Putra is designed to accommodate the morphological structure of the heart. CFD is a non-invasive technique which can provide details on haemodynamic information. The information is then used to generate numerical meshes for CFD simulation which provide detailed 3D right atrial velocity and pressure distributions in the right artrial cavity. The demonstration of intratrial blood flow was modelled and simulated using the CFD code. According to the ABC Putra invention, the pressure drop is achieved by a narrower sub-section (VETRO) of the conduit that needs to be incorporated into the design. This is due to the fixed specification of inlet and outlet diameters. The diameter of the intermediate conduit need to be varied and has to last for a certain length to allow for a pressure drop of about 65 mmHg.
The ABC Putra is designed such that targeted outlet pressure is 50 mmHg whilst the inlet pressure is tailored according to the diastolic pressure (as it is during the perfusion of the coronary arterial system). The diastolic pressure can vary anywhere between 60-100mmHg. Total occlusion of blood flow causes necrosis of the muscle tissue. Necrosis of muscle tissue causes scar formation, leading to cardiac remodelling and failure. By using this ABC Putra invention, the blood supply to the heart muscles can be carried out by means of using an artificial coronary bypass conduit and this will resolve the issue of multiple blockage of the blood vessel that delivers blood to the heart muscles.
A classical treatment to heart attack is usually done by undergoes a bypass surgery where the bypass grafts are frequently harvested from internal thoracic arteries, radial arteries or saphenous veins known as coronary sinus bypass surgery. The vein is usually harvested from the leg or stomach of human. In order to prevent the risk of patency and infections, an artificial coronary sinus conduit was produced throughout numerical studies of blood flow system of aorta coronary sinus conduit.
The model was carried out using ANSYS CFD (CFX 12.2 codes) simulation. Pressure drop was investigated to achieve from 80mmHg to 15mmHg with a 3D model blood conduit. It is found that a narrow tube needs to be incorporated into the conduit model. This is to induce a venturi effect in order to reduce the pressure of blood within a specific throat length. A model of 3mm inlet and throat diameter of 1.13mm throat diameter shows the best result for pressure reduction from 80mmHg to 15mmHg.
This model also has a lower peak velocity (laminar flow), which is more preferable in blood flow in vein. The model is being fabricated and will be recommended to be used for heart attack patients due to simple and economical. The product also can be market locally and international especially in India and United Stated.