The present use of a natural botanical phenylbutenoid compound, cis-3-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-[(E)-3''',4'''-dimethoxystyryl]cyclohex-1-ene relates to a novel means as remedies for childhood leukemia. The botanical compound may also include the use of the plant material (where the botanical compound was isolated) for use as remedies for childhood leukemia. This can be made possible using the phenyl-butenoid dimer compound as a guide to standardise the plant extract for use as remedies and supplements. Subject for further investigations, the phenylbutenoid compound can possibly be used in conjunction to existing commercial anti cancer drugs used for childhood leukemia treatment.
Zingiber cassumunar is the most widely cultivated species of Zingiberaceae family and commonly known as 'plai' in Thailand and 'bonglai' in Malaysia. cis-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-[(E)-3,4-dimethoxystyryl]cyclohex-1-ene is a phenylbutenoid compound isolated from the rhizomes of Z. cassumunar. The objective of this study is to examine the antiproliferative activities of this phenylbuteniod compound on human T-lymphoblastic cell line, CEMSS. The cytotoxicity test using MTT assay showed selectivity towards CEMss with an IC50 value of 7.11 ± 0.240µg/ml. Morphology examination using phase-contrast inverted microscope and AO/PI double staining showed distinctive morphological changes attributed to possible apoptosis induction after treatment of CEMMs cells with the phenylbutenoid compound. Cell cycle analysis revealed significant (P < 0.05) S-phase arrest in a time-depended manner, whilst DNA fragmentation of CEMss cells was clearly detected using 1.2% (v/v) agarose gel. Decrement of mitochondrial membrane potential was also observed in treated CEMss cells in time-depended manner using Rh123 staining. In addition, the RayBio® Human Apoptosis Antibody Array assay analysis showed that Bcl-2 protein was found to decrease whilst Bax and caspase 3 increased. Caspase luminescent assay and Western blot analysis were done to further confirm these results. The Caspase luminescent assay showed up-regulation of caspase 3/7 and 9 but caspase 8 remained at basal level. Western blot analysis showed up-regulation of Bax and Hsp-70 proteins but down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein. Collectively, these results clearly demonstrated for the first time that, cis-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-[(e)-3,4-dimethoxystyryl]cyclohex-1-ene, isolated from the rhizome of Z. cassumunar inhibited the proliferation of Human T-lymphoblastic cells selectively, leading towards induction of programmed cell death (apoptosis) via intrinsic mitochondrial pathway.
Therapeutically effective amount of the phenylbutenoid dimer induces cell death and cell cycle arrest in cancerous CEMss cells, while not effecting non-cancerous cells. This botanical compound in botanical plant extracts can be useful remedies possibly for childhood leukemia.